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  • Jayne Green (B.Ed;M.Ed)

*Diagnosing and Understanding High Blood Pressure


Diagnosing and Understanding High Blood Pressure High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a medical condition where the force of the blood against the walls of the arteries remains consistently too high. It is a common health issue that, if left untreated, can lead to severe complications like heart disease. In this blog post, we will delve into how hypertension is diagnosed, its types, causes, treatment, and prevention.

How is High Blood Pressure Diagnosed? A routine check at your doctor's office is usually the first step. Here’s how it works:

  1. Procedure: An inflatable cuff is placed around your arm, and a pressure-measuring gauge is used.

  2. Reading the Results: Two numbers are generated from this test. The systolic pressure (the first number) measures arterial pressure during heartbeats, and the diastolic pressure (the second number) measures it between beats.

  3. Interpreting the Numbers: Blood pressure readings can be categorized as:

    • Normal: Below 120/80 mm Hg.

    • Elevated (Prehypertension): Systolic 120-129 mm Hg or diastolic below 80 mm Hg.

    • Stage 1 Hypertension: Systolic 130-139 mm Hg or diastolic 80-89 mm Hg.

    • Stage 2 Hypertension: Systolic at least 140 mm Hg or diastolic at least 90 mm Hg.

    • Blood Pressure Crisis: Systolic over 180 mm Hg or diastolic over 120 mm Hg—requires urgent medical attention.


Doctors usually take multiple readings over time before diagnosing hypertension since BP can fluctuate throughout the day. What are the Types of Hypertension?

  1. Primary (Essential) Hypertension: This form gradually develops over time and lacks an identifiable cause.

  2. Secondary Hypertension: This is caused by another medical condition and can arise suddenly, with higher readings than primary hypertension.

Causes of Hypertension For primary hypertension, the exact cause is unknown. Secondary hypertension, on the other hand, may arise due to factors like obstructive sleep apnea, kidney issues, adrenal gland tumors, birth defects in blood vessels, and the usage of certain medications or drugs.

Treatment Options for Hypertension Effective management often requires a combination of lifestyle changes and medications:

  • Lifestyle Changes: These involve dietary improvements, reduced salt and alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, weight management, smoking cessation, and stress reduction.


  • Medications: Depending on individual needs, doctors might prescribe thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, renin inhibitors, or other medications.

Prevention of Hypertension Though genetics can play a role, maintaining a healthy lifestyle remains pivotal. This includes a balanced diet, reduced salt and alcohol consumption, regular exercise, weight management, avoiding smoking, and managing stress.

Lastly, regular medical check-ups are crucial for monitoring heart health. Tools like the Heart Health Check Guide can be instrumental in keeping track of key risk signs during doctor visits.

Hypertension may seem daunting, but with proper awareness, diagnosis, and management, it can be effectively controlled. Always consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice.


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